Law No. 17.011 of September 25, 1998, Establishing Provisions on Trademarks

Chapter I Trademarks
1. Trademark means any sign capable of distinguishing goods and services of one natural or legal person from those of other natural or legal persons.
2. The registration of non-visible signs shall be conditional on the availability of suitable technical means.
The Executive Power shall establish the opportuneness of such registration and shall regulate the form of implementation.
3. Advertising slogans that satisfy the conditions stipulated by this Law may constitute trademarks.
Chapter II Nullity
Section I Absolute Nullity
4. For the purposes of this Law, the following shall not be deemed trademarks and shall therefore be subject to absolute nullity:
(1) the name of the State and of the Provincial Governments, the national or provincial symbols, the coats of arms or distinctive elements identifying them, except with respect to such bodies, to unofficial public persons, to companies with State participation and in the cases referred to in Articles 73 et seq. of this Law;
(2) signs that reproduce or imitate coins, banknotes or any official national or foreign means of payment, as also official signs and hallmarks indicating control and warranty adopted by the State;
(3) the emblems belonging to the Red Cross and the International Olympic Committee;
(4) appellations of origin, indications of source and any geographical name that is not sufficiently original and distinctive with regard to the goods or services to which they apply or whose use is liable to create confusion regarding the origin, source, qualities or characteristics of the goods or services for which the mark is used;
(5) the shape given to goods or packaging if it meets the requirements to constitute a patent or a utility model in accordance with the law;
(6) the names of plant varieties that are registered with the Registry of Cultivar Ownership established by Law No. 16.811 of February 21, 1997, with respect to such varieties in the corresponding class;
(7) letters or numbers considered individually without particular shape;
(8) the color of goods, packaging and labels where they are of a single color. However, combinations of colors of packaging and labels may be used as marks;
(9) technical, commercial or common names used to express qualities or attributes of goods or services;
(10) names generally used to indicate the nature of goods and services or the class, kind or type to which they belong;
(11) words or expressions which have become customary in the current language and signs or designs not being fancy, i.e. that do not comprise novel, special or distinctive features;
(12) words or combinations of words in foreign languages whose translation into Spanish falls under the prohibitions set out in the above items (9), (10) and (11);
(13) drawings or expressions contrary to public policy, morality or accepted practice;
(14) caricatures, portraits, drawings and expressions liable to ridicule ideas, persons or objects worthy of respect and consideration.
Section II Relative Nullity
5. For the purposes of this Law, the following may not be registered as trademarks by reason of their relative nullity:
(1) flags, coats of arms, letters, words and other distinctive signs that identify foreign States or international and intergovernmental entities, unless their commercial use is authorized by a certificate duly issued by the corresponding office of the State or body concerned;
(2) literary and artistic works, reproductions thereof and fictional or symbolic characters that warrant copyright protection, unless registration is requested by the owner thereof or by a third party with his consent;
(3) names or portraits of living persons, unless their consent has been obtained, and those of deceased persons, unless consent is obtained from those persons judicially declared as their heirs, whereby, for the purposes of this provision, names shall be understood as the forename followed by the surname, the surname alone, pseudonyms or titles where they identify persons as such;
(4) the surname alone where persons bearing that surname have entered an opposition deemed to be justified by the administrative authority;
(5) certification or warranty marks included in the prohibition under Article 54 of this
Law;
(6) signs or words constituting the full or partial reproduction, imitation or translation of a well-known mark or of a trade name;
(7) words, signs or distinctive elements that suggest the intention of unfair competition.
Chapter III Conditions for Registration
6. To be eligible for registration, trademarks must be clearly different from those already entered in the register or whose registration is pending in order to avoid confusion with respect to the same goods or services or with respect to competing goods or services.
7. Those signs that fall under the prohibitions laid down in items (9), (10), (11) and (12) of Article 4 of this Law may nevertheless form part of a trademark composition, but without exclusive rights therein.
8. Where a word or combination of words that falls under the prohibitions under items (9), (10), (11) and (12) of Article 4 of this Law has acquired a proven distinctive nature with regard to the goods or services associated with a given natural or legal person it shall be admitted as a trademark for that natural or legal person and with respect to those goods or services.
On expiry of registration granted under the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the same registration may not be entered again on behalf of other persons.
The first paragraph of this Article shall also apply to trademarks registered prior to the entry into force of this Law if they satisfy the conditions stipulated therein.
Chapter IV Rights Afforded by Registration
9. The right in a trademark is acquired by registration carried out in accordance with this Law.
Registration of a trademark shall imply the presumption that the natural or legal person in whose name the entry was made is its lawful owner.
10. Registration of a trademark already registered abroad may be applied for only by its owner acting in person or through his duly appointed agent or by any person who is able to prove that he has been duly authorized to register the trademark in the name of the owner.
11. The exclusive ownership of a trademark is granted only with respect to the goods and services included in the application.
In the case of a trademark that includes the name of a product or service, the trademark shall be registered exclusively for the product or service included in the trademark.
12. The registration of a trademark shall not afford the right to prevent the free circulation of products bearing the trademark that have been lawfully placed on the market by the owner or with his authorization, on condition that those products and their presentation, together with the packaging and get-up that is in immediate contact with them, have not undergone any significant alteration, modification or deterioration.
13. Once a trademark has been registered, its owner shall enjoy the protection afforded by that trademark and may not seek a new registration of the same trademark with respect to the same classes, in whole or in part, unless he has previously or simultaneously renounced the earlier registration, in whole or in part, as appropriate.
14. The right to oppose the use or registration of any trademark liable to cause confusion between the goods or services shall belong to the natural or legal person who has satisfied the requirements laid down by this Law.
15. Any change in the name or domicile, any modification of the form of company or any other change affecting ownership of the registration, shall be notified to the National Directorate of Industrial Property and shall be published in the Industrial Property Bulletin [Boleti’n de la PropiedadIndustrial].
16. Ownership of a trademark may be inherited and may be transferred inter vivos, by testamentary provision, by writ of execution or by action of replevin.
Transfer in whole or in part of the property right in a trademark may be effected by public or private instrument. To be invokable against others, it must be notified to the National Directorate of Industrial Property and be published in the Industrial Property Bulletin to be established by Article 80 of this Law.
17. Notwithstanding the provision in Article 14 of this Law, in the event of transfer, the transferor shall be required to state whether he owns other trademarks identical or similar to the trademark he is transferring. If the transferor fails to declare or conceals such trademarks he shall forego the protection afforded to those trademarks by registration by an order issued ex officio or at the request of an interested party.
18. The protection afforded by registration of a trademark shall subsist for 10 years and shall be renewable for further 10-year periods without limit at the request of the owner or of his representative.
Renewal shall be applied for within the six months preceding expiry of the term of protection. However, a period of grace of six months shall be afforded as from the day following the expiry date which shall be published in the Industrial Property Bulletin.
Where a trademark is renewed, those classes, goods or services contained in the prior registration that are not claimed shall be deemed to have been renounced.
19. The use of a trademark shall be optional.
The use of a trademark may be compulsory for reasons of public interest stipulated by decree of the Executive Power.
Chapter V Opposition, Cancellation and Claim Procedures
20. The holder of a right or of a direct interest that is personal and legitimate may oppose registration that is applied for or seek cancellation of trademarks already registered in those cases referred to in Articles 4 and 5 of this Law.
21. The National Directorate of Industrial Property may oppose and refuse applications for registration or cancel the registration of trademarks in those cases referred to in Articles 4 and 5 of this Law.
22. The National Directorate of Industrial Property may oppose and refuse applications for registration that do not satisfy Article 6 of this Law, in order to defend the rights of consumers.
23. The owners of registered trademarks or of pending registrations may oppose applications for registration of trademarks that are identical or similar to their own or request cancellation of trademarks already entered in the Register.
Opposition to registration shall be filed within 30 days of the day following publication in the Industrial Property Bulletin to be established under Article 80 of this Law.
24. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 14 of this Law, the owners of trademarks that are in use, but which are not registered, may oppose registration sought for trademarks that are identical or similar to their own within the time limit laid down in the preceding Article, provided that the opposing party proves undisturbed and public use for a continuous period of at least one year.
Where opposition is filed by a person who has owned a registered trademark, but has not renewed it, use shall be deemed to be proven for the period during which such trademark had been registered.
Once opposition has been filed, the opposing party shall be required to apply for registration of the trademark within 10 days. Failure to do so shall constitute sufficient grounds to automatically reject the opposition.
If the time limit for opposition has expired and the act determining grant of the registration has become final, the trademark that has been entered may no longer be subject to any other opposition invoking the same grounds.
25. If on filing an action for cancellation based on the provisions laid down in items (6) or (7) of Article 5 of this Law, the owner of the trademark has not applied for registration in the country, he shall be required to do so within 90 days following filing of the action. Failure to do so shall constitute sufficient grounds for automatically rejecting the action for cancellation.
26. Opposition shall exclude any action for cancellation invoking the same grounds.
27. An action for cancellation based on Article 4 of this Law may be filed at any time.
The right to file an action for cancellation based on Article 5 of this Law shall lapse 15 years after the date of grant of the registration of the trademark, except in the case of a well- known mark that has been registered in bad faith, in which case an action may be filed at any time.
28. Where registration of a trademark has been applied for or obtained by an agent, a representative, an importer, a distributor, a licensee or a franchisee of the trademark in his own name and without the authorization of the owner, the latter may institute proceedings, without prejudice to any actions for opposition or cancellation, to claim the right before the National Directorate of Industrial Property to be recognized as the applicant or owner of the right and for the pending application or granted registration to be transferred to him.
Such claim proceedings may not be instituted later than five years after the date of the grant of the registration.
Chapter VI Trademark Registration Procedure
29. An application for registration of a trademark shall be submitted to the National Directorate of Industrial Property and shall be accompanied by the documents required for that purpose and the publication fee shall be paid at the same time.
30. The priority of a registration shall be given by the date and time of filing of the application concerned.
31. Once the application for registration has been submitted, no modification of the trademark sign shall be admitted. Any request for modification of such kind shall require a new request for registration.
32. Once registration of a trademark has been applied for, the number of goods or services with respect to which protection is sought may not be increased, even within the same class, but the scope of protection may be limited by removing classes, products or services.
33. Where action for cancellation is based on the grounds referred to in items (6) and (7) of Article 5 of this Law, it shall be filed together with evidence that may be produced in any suitable manner giving reasonable proof and subject to common sense and the provisions of the regulations.
The party filing opposition, appeal or a request may be exempted from proving the well- known nature of the trademark if the applicant or owner knew of that trademark when applying for registration.
34. The National Directorate of Industrial Property shall take the decisions on the applications for registration of trademarks, granting them or refusing them, in whole or in part, as appropriate, and taking into account the classes to which those applications refer.
35. Once the registration has been granted, the National Directorate of Industrial Property shall issue the corresponding title.
36. The time limits afforded to parties shall be peremptory and may not be extended, unless otherwise laid down in the regulations.
37. At the request of the party concerned, the National Directorate of Industrial Property may issue a second title in the manner laid down by the regulations under this Law.
Chapter VII Collective Marks
38. Collective marks are marks used to identify goods or services originating from the members of a given collectivity.
Associations of producers, manufacturers, traders or service providers may apply for registration of a collective mark in order to distinguish, on the market, the goods or services of their members from the goods or services of persons not members of such association.
39. The application for registration of a collective mark shall include the regulations for use of the mark containing the identification particulars of the requesting association, and setting out the persons authorized to use the mark, the requirements for membership of the association, the conditions for using the mark and the grounds on which a member of the association may be prohibited from using the mark.
40. The owner of a collective mark shall notify to the Industrial Property Registry any change in the regulations for use, which shall be published in the Industrial Property Bulletin.
Any change in the regulations for use shall take effect as from notification to the Industrial Property Registry.
41. A collective mark may be cancelled ex officio or at the request of an interested party in the following cases:
(1) where the collective mark is used by its owner contrary to the regulations for use;
(2) where the collective mark is used solely by its owner or solely by one of the authorized persons.
42. A collective mark may not be transferred to third parties nor may its use be authorized for persons not officially recognized by the association.
43. A collective mark shall be subject to all the provisions of this Law, except as otherwise laid down in this Chapter.
Chapter VIII Certification or Warranty Marks
44. Marks of certification or warranty certify common characteristics, particularly quality, components, nature, methodology employed or any other relevant data, at the discretion of the owner, of products made or services provided by persons duly authorized and controlled by such owner.
Ownership of a certification or warranty mark shall be restricted to the State or para¬State bodies competent to undertake quality certification activities on behalf of the State in accordance with their terms of reference or a private law entity duly authorized by the aforementioned competent body.
45. Appellations of origin governed by this Law may not be registered as warranty marks, but shall, in any event, be governed by specific provisions.
46. Application for registration of a certification or warranty mark shall include the regulations for use setting out the quality, components, nature, methodology employed and any other relevant data with respect to the products that are manufactured or distributed or the services that are provided, at the discretion of the owner.
The regulations for use shall likewise lay down those means of control that the owner of the certification or warranty mark is required to establish together with the schedule of penalties.
47. The regulations for use shall be drawn up by a public or para-State bodyor by the private person referred to in Article 44 above, within the scope of his competence, and shall be submitted in the form prescribed in Article 46 to the National Directorate of Industrial Property that shall check that the regulations comply with the provisions of this Law and with its regulations.
48. Failure to comply with the regulations for use on the part of the users may be sanctioned by the owner by withdrawing authorization to use the mark or by other penalties laid down in the corresponding regulations.
49. The owner of the certification or warranty mark shall notify to the Industrial Property Registry any modification to the regulations for use, which it shall publish in the Industrial Property Bulletin to be established in accordance with Article 80 of this Law.
Any modification of the regulations for use shall take effect as from its notification to the Industrial Property Registry.
50. The registration of a certification or warranty mark shall be of unlimited duration and shall terminate through cancellation or in the event of the dissolution or death of the owner in accordance with the provisions of the second paragraph of Article 54 of this Law.
A registration may be cancelled at any time at the request of the owner.
51. Use of a certification or warranty mark by any person whose products or services satisfy the conditions laid down in the regulations for use of the mark shall require authorization by the owner of the mark.
52. A certification or warranty mark may not be used for goods or services produced, provided or marketed by the owner of the mark himself.
53. A certification or warranty mark shall not be transferable. Likewise, it may not be the subject of encumbrance or charge, seizure or other holding measure or judicial enforcement.
54. If the owner of the certification or warranty mark is dissolved or dies, the mark shall pass to the State or para-State body or private person referred to in Article 44 of this Law, who shall assume the competence of the body that has been dissolved or has disappeared, in accordance with law, and on notification to the National Directorate of Industrial Property.
Should the quality certification activity on behalf of the State, assumed by the body or person that has been dissolved or has died, not be awarded to another entity, the registration of the certification or warranty mark shall automatically lapse.
55. A certification or warranty mark of which the registration has been cancelled or which is no longer used by reason of the dissolution or death of the owner may not be adopted, used or registered as a mark or other distinctive commercial sign until 10 years have elapsed since the cancellation, dissolution or death of the owner, save for the provision in the first paragraph of Article 54.
56. All provisions of this Law shall apply to certification or warranty marks unless otherwise provided in this Chapter.
Chapter IX Rights Affecting Trademarks, Licenses, Pledges, Seizure and Prohibition of Innovation
Section I
Licenses
57. A Trademark License Register is hereby established to be kept by the National Directorate of Industrial Property.
58. For the purposes of this Law, a license is an accessory contract to the trademark registration by which is granted a right of use, in whole or in part, of a registered trademark or of a pending registration, for a given period of time, in an exclusive or non-exclusive form.
Where the contract does not contain an exclusivity clause, it shall be presumed not to have granted exclusive rights to the licensee.
59. A license shall have effect with respect to third parties as from its entry with the National Directorate of Industrial Property.
60. An extract of the substantive parts of a licensing contract shall be published in the Industrial Property Bulletin.
61. A licensee shall not be entitled to assign his rights, either in part or in whole, without the express consent of the licensor.
62. Any modification to a licensing or sublicensing contract shall be communicated to the National Directorate of Industrial Property and the provisions of Articles 58, 59, 60 and 61 of this Law shall apply thereto.
63. A franchising contract including a trademark license shall be governed by the provisions of this Section as appropriate.
Section II Industrial Pledges
64. On entry into force of this Law, registration competence with regard to pledges without dispossession of trademark registrations referred to in item (2) of Article 2 of Law No. 8.292 of September 24, 1928 and the concordant, supplementary and amending provisions thereto, shall be transferred to the National Directorate of Industrial Property.
Section III Seizure and Prohibition on Innovation
65. The National Directorate of Industrial Property shall keep a register of seizures and prohibition to make changes communicated by the judicial authority and which concern registered or pending trademarks.
Chapter X Expiry of Trademark Registrations
66. A trademark registration shall expire
(1) on expiry of the term laid down in Article 18 of this Law, except for renewal;
(2) at the wish of the owner communicated in writing to the National Directorate of Industrial Property. Where a registered licensing contract exists, the owner of the licensed trademark shall be required to certify that he has duly notified the licensee of his wish to renounce the registration as a condition of entry of the renunciation;
(3) by declaration of nullity given by the competent authority;
(4) on the grounds of Article 18 of this Law;
(5) on cessation of State participation in the firms referred to in item (1) of Article 4 of this Law.
Chapter XI Trade Names
67. For the purposes of this Law, trade names shall constitute industrial property.
68. If a natural or legal person wishes to undertake an activity for commercial purposes that is already carried out by some other person, having the same name or having the same conventional designation, he shall be required to make a clear modification to such a name or such designation that has the effect of making it visibly different from the previously existing one.
69. Legal action by the owner of the exclusive right of use in a trade name shall be prescribed five years after the day on which use by another party has begun.
70. The assignment or sale of an establishment shall include the assignment or sale of a trademark, unless otherwise agreed, and the assignee shall have the right to use such trademark, even if nominal, in the same manner as the assignor without restriction other than as expressly set out in the contract of sale or assignment.
71. The exclusive right to use a name as industrial property shall expire with cessation of commercial activities that bear it.
72. It shall not be necessary for a name to be registered in order to exercise the rights afforded by this Law, except where it constitutes part of a trademark.
Chapter XII Geographical Indications
73. Indications of source and appellations of origin shall constitute geographical indications.
74. An indication of source is the use of a geographical name on goods and/or services to identify the place of extraction, production or fabrication of a given product or the provision of a given service, considered as the place of source.
Indications of source shall be protected without need for registration.
75. An appellation of origin shall be constituted by the geographical name of a country, a city, a region or a locality used to designate a product or service whose qualities or characteristics are exclusively or essentially due to the geographical environment, including natural or human factors.
76. There is hereby established at the National Directorate of Industrial Property a Register of Appellations of Origin.
77. The use of an indication of source shall be restricted to the producers and service providers established in that place, with the condition, in connection with appellations of origin, that the quality requirements be satisfied.
78. A geographical name that does not constitute an indication of source or an appellation of origin may be used as a trademark on condition that it is not misleading as to the true place of origin.
79. The prohibition on use of a geographical indication to identify wines and spirits shall not apply where it has been used continuously over a minimum period of 10 years prior to April 15, 1994.
Chapter XIII Industrial Property Bulletin
80. An Industrial Property Bulletin is hereby established in which shall be published
(1) the application for registration of a trademark and the regulations for use, where applicable, in the manner to be provided;
(2) all decisions taken with respect to a trademark;
(3) the extracts of licensing contracts, sublicensing contracts and modifications as required by Articles 58, 59, 60 and 62 of this Law;
(4) those notifications which should be made personally, but which were not possible for a reason ascribable to the person concerned, except as provided in Article 317 of the Constitution of the Republic;
(5) orders to attend;
(6) entry in the Register of Agents;
(7) any other acts laid down by the regulations or as decided by the National Directorate of Industrial Property.
Chapter XIV Civil and Penal Actions
81. Any person who for profit or to cause damage, uses, manufactures, falsifies, adulterates or imitates a trademark entered in the Register in the name of another person shall be liable to imprisonment of between six months and three years.
82. Any person who fills incorrect products into packaging bearing another’s trademark shall be liable to imprisonment of between six months and three years.
83. Any person who knowingly manufactures, stocks, distributes or markets merchandise bearing trademarks as referred to in the preceding Articles shall be liable to imprisonment of between three months and six years.
84. The trademarks as referred to in the preceding Articles together with the instruments used to carry them out shall be destroyed or rendered unusable.
Infringing merchandise that has been seized shall be confiscated and destroyed except where, in view of their nature, they may be allocated to public or private charitable institutions.
85. The provisions of this Chapter shall apply, as appropriate, to any persons who, without entitlement, make use of the appellations of origin referred to in Article 75 of this Law.
86. The offenses laid down in this Law shall be liable to prosecution, at the request of an interested party, in accordance with Articles 11 et seq. of the Code of Penal Procedure.
87. Persons suffering prejudice through the infringement of the provisions contained in Articles 81 to 85 of this Law shall be entitled to institute proceedings for damages against the authors and joint authors of activities subject to penal sanction.
88. The owners of registered trademarks may petition the judicial authority to prohibit the use of an unregistered trademark that is identical or similar to theirs.
89. No civil or criminal action may be instituted once four years have elapsed after the committing or repetition of the offense or after one year computed from the day on which the owner of the trademark has gained knowledge of the fact for the first time.
Acts that interrupt the term of prescription shall be as determined by the general rules of
law.
Chapter XV Procedure Before the National Directorate of Industrial Property
90. The following shall be entitled to act in the proceedings provided for in this Law:
(1) the interested parties themselves, whether or not they are represented;
(2) the industrial property agents entered in the corresponding register, having duly certified powers;
(3) representatives having the required power of attorney.
91. Industrial property agents shall have the same obligations and responsibilities as the representatives in accordance with the provisions of Part 2 of Book 4 of Title VIII of the Civil Code.
Chapter XVI Industrial Property Agents
92. The National Directorate of Industrial Property shall keep the Register of Industrial Property Agents established by Decree 685/968 of November 14, 1968.
93. To obtain registration as an industrial property agent, an interested person must satisfy, in addition to the formalities laid down by the regulations, the following requirements:
(1) be of age;
(2) have an established legal domicile;
(3) provide proof of good conduct;
(4) have a diploma of secondary education;
(5) pass a proficiency examination, with the exception of lawyers.
A certificate of entry may be issued to the interested parties at their request and at their own expense.
94. The examination required under item (5) of the preceding Article shall be taken before a panel made up of three members designated by the National Director of Industrial Property.
95. The registrations afforded to industrial property agents prior to the promulgation of this Law are hereby confirmed.
96. Advertising or offering of services by agents or their employees on the premises of the National Directorate of Industrial Property shall be deemed serious misconduct.
97. Industrial property agents shall be responsible for the acts of their employees in accordance with the provision of the first paragraph of Article 1324 of the Civil Code.
98. The activities of industrial property agents shall be supervised by the National Directorate of Industrial Property, which may apply the following sanctions:
(1) a warning;
(2) a fine of between 10 (ten) and 100 UR (hundred sliding units) depending on the seriousness of the fault;
(3) suspension for a maximum period of two years;
(4) removal from the Register of Industrial Property Agents.
Sanctions shall be applied in accordance with the corresponding regulations.
Chapter XVII Fees
99. The National Directorate of Industrial Property shall collect fees for the following acts: .. .1
Chapter XVIII Transitional Provisions
100. The owners of trademarks in use not registered with the National Directorate of Industrial Property and persons who have held registrations, but who have not renewed them in accordance with the second paragraph of Article 11 of Law No. 9.956 of October 4, 1940, shall enjoy a two-year period of grace as from the promulgation of this Law in order to institute trademark proceedings as provided herein, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 24.
Any person instituting such proceedings shall be required to apply for registration of the trademark within 10 days. Failure to do so shall constitute sufficient grounds for automatic rejection of the proceedings.
101. The publications determined in Law 10.089 of December 12, 1941 and in Decree- Law 14.549 of July 29, 1976 and its implementing decrees, shall be made in the Industrial Property Bulletin established by this Law.
All publications provided for by this Law shall be made once only.
Chapter XIX Final Provisions
102. The National Directorate of Industrial Property of the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mining shall be the competent authority in all matters provided for by this Law.
103. The registers provided for in this Law shall be public.
104. The procedures established by this Law shall constitute particular arrangements due to tehir special nature and as such shall be governed by the provisions herein and the regulations issued and only supplementarily by the rules of general administrative procedure.
105. The Executive Power shall issue regulations under this Law within a period of 120 days as from the day following publication in the Official Gazette.
106. On entry into force of this Law, Law No. 9.956 of October 4, 1940, and Law No. 10.089 of December 12, 1941, where appropriate, and Article 226 of Law No. 16.320 of November 1, 1992 shall be repealed.
107. The Executive Power shall take the necessary measures to implement this Law.
108. Revenue deriving from the execution of this Law shall be devoted to improvement of the service.
* Spanish title: Ley 17.011 [de 15 de setiembre de 1998] — Dictanse normas relativas a las marcas. Entry into force: September 25, 1998. Source: Communication from the Uruguayan authorities.
Note: English translation communicated by the national authorities and edited by the International Bureau of
WIPO.
** Added by the International Bureau of WIPO. 1 Fees not reproduced here Editor’s note).